CYBERSPACE & CYBER-SECURITY
The Internet is under fierce attacks,
and it is not just attacks by pirates,
thieves and spies.
Alexander Klimberg states in his book
The Darkening Web that governments that
insist on domination are increasingly attacking
the notion that this digital field of cross-border
commons is so that cyber-space has become
a battleground in a new era of ideological battles.
Clemberg – Director of Cyberspace Policy
at The Hague Center for Strategic Studies in
the Netherlands believes that parties to conflict can
be categorized into two camps.
The first represents the forces of “Internet freedom”
that support the flow of information without restrictions,
bypassing national borders or cultural barriers,
and the second, it is a camp. Domination of cyberspace
“led by Russia and China, which is demanding more
government control over the Internet and information.
As part of China’s endeavor to keep this monstrous work done,
the “Great Firewall” project outnumbers the Chinese armed forces.
The risk ratio seems to be very high, Klimberg said.
Will the Internet have access to its potential to support
the idea of global civilization? Or will the power of the
Internet turn against it, as it contributes to strengthening
the historical divisions between nations,
to undergo another chapter in the Cold War?
Aggression and repression are common on the Internet.
The diplomatic crisis that erupted in the Middle East and Africa
this year may have been provoked by Russian pirates
who published false news on the Qatar News Agency.
The Turkish government banned Wikipedia in April,
after a comment critical of the
government appeared on that online encyclopedia.
At the same time, however,
there is an increase in the volume of joint efforts to
improve cyberspace defenses, including the
agreement concluded between Vietnam and Japan in April,
and its counterpart concluded between
Singapore and Australia in June.
“Piracy has made the possibilities of arming information very tangible.”
The Dark Web gives an accurate yet comprehensive overview
of how things have turned out to be what we are seeing today,
with a thorough review of the historical background.
Klimberg describes how the way the Internet works
depends on several separate parts, and on different
participants, including governments, the private sector,
civil society, academics, and independent individuals,
all of whom provide the infrastructure, coding, and
content that builds cyberspace, in addition to the
increased capacity required To respond to emergencies.
The multi-stakeholder paradigm – for Internet governance
is part of a system that enables the
Internet to transcend local boundaries.
It is worth noting that Clemberg believes that
“all countries participating in the Internet already
accept the loss of a certain amount of sovereignty”,
as “the Internet Corporation for Assigning Names and Numbers”
an international non-profit organization
has more authority over the domain name system
than those that It is enjoyed by any single government.
The abundance of information Nevertheless,
cyber-domination advocates have an advantage,
as Klimberg sees themselves as always in attack,
using information as a weapon to advance national interests.
On the other hand, supporters of Internet
freedom struggle to defend the status quo,
which is based on transparency and international
cooperation. From Clemberg’s point of view,
the ultimate goal of supporters of hegemony
in cyberspace is nothing more than
a “complete reworking of the global system
with its old concept set by the West.”
And it seems that the
winds come as their ships crave
Growing fears about online security will increase
government oversight of Cyberspace, and Russian
piracy of election campaigns and their manipulation
of “influence operations” in the 2016 US presidential
election have made the possibilities of arming
information a tangible reality.
The growing nationalism and political
polarization in the West may exacerbate the situation.
Last May, in the Wall Street Journal,
the National Security Adviser at the
White House, Herbert Raymond McMaster,
and Gary Cohen – Director of the National
Economic Council – said that the world is not an
“international community,” but a battle where
states and non-state actors are involved.
And companies, and compete in it;
in search of superiority over others, and continued by saying:
“Instead of denying this fundamental nature of international affairs,
we embrace it.
” By replacing the word “the world” with the word “cyberspace”,
it is clear that the United States is moving toward championing
hegemony in cyberspace. In addition,
in the aftermath of the terrorist attack on
the London Bridge on June 3, British Prime
Minister Theresa May seemed to favor imposing
new government restrictions on information
available on the Internet, when she called for
“international agreements to regulate cyberspace
to prevent the spread of extremism and plan terrorism” .
The scope of the problem undoubtedly includes several things,
including “bad content” on the Internet, such as incitement,
defamation, and child pornography. However,
from the perspective of Internet freedom,
Klimberg argues that this issue should be
dealt with in terms of law enforcement,
not Heb Proactive communications are not restricted,
and electronic defense must be implemented at multiple levels.
there is a continuing semantic struggle
over cybersecurity terminology, with each
team trying to impose – or exclude
specific indications. In this regard,
Klimberg notes that Russia and China define
“information security” in a way that reflects
their goal of legitimizing state control of information.
The United Nations and other bodies are making
efforts to set standards of behavior in cyberspace
that would strengthen or undermine the
national grip on the Internet. For example,
the US Defense Science Council asked in a
report this year: “Is it acceptable,
or not It is acceptable for countries to
pre-set malware on other countries ’electrical networks,
which appears to have happened to the United States?
If this is acceptable, the council advises the United States
to do likewise, out of deterrence. If this is unacceptable,
the perpetrators of this crime
should be identified and punished.
At the same time, the purpose of international
diplomacy is to resolve conflicts,
and if they appear weak,
Klimberg explains that the agreement
concluded between the United States
and China in September 2015 resulted in
“the largest decline in the history of
cyberspace conflict”, as the rates of
Chinese cyber attacks on
American companies decreased significantly.
It should be noted that the book
“The Dark Web” did not bring together all the current events,
as he shrewdly touched upon
Russian interference in the American presidential elections,
and he did not mention the piracy group called “Shadow Brokers,”
who seized intelligence tools.
From the US National Security Agency (NSA) in 2016;
as well as the WannaCry ransomware that broke
out in May this year around the world; or the new
Chinese cybersecurity law, which mysteriously aims
to regulate “data traffic” Cross-border “,
however, the author presents a thoughtful
framework for assessing developments
This is the area that is evolving rapidly.
Perhaps most characteristic of this book
is the accountability and discussion of
the assumptions on which it was based.
Klimberg admits that the West rarely
views opposition views clearly,
so if it is difficult to understand Russia’s
“level of aggression” toward the Internet,
it may be because other countries are ignorant
of how many cyber attacks Russia is subjected to.
In his view, the West itself had contributed to
the deterioration of this trust underlying the
principle of Internet freedom, by engaging in
random surveillance activities, such as those
undertaken by the National Security Agency,
which were unveiled in 2013 by former entrepreneur Edward Snowden.
Klimberg concludes his book by saying that
the battle of Internet freedom – in the end
“represents in itself a part of the struggle
towards the heart of a modern democratic society”,
and those with democracy must defend
that freedom with all their resolve.